Maryland State Archives
Maryland Colonization Journal Collection
MSA SC 4303

msa_sc4303_scm11070-0035

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Maryland State Archives
Maryland Colonization Journal Collection
MSA SC 4303

msa_sc4303_scm11070-0035

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MARYLAND COLONIZATION JOURNAL. CONDUCTED BY THE COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATIONS OF THE MARYLAND STATE COLONIZATION SOCIETY, UNDER THE ALSPICES OF THE MANAGERS OF THE STATE FUND Vol. I. Baltimore, April, 1837. No. 9. When gratuitous, please circulate. MARYLAND STATE COLONIZATION SOCIETY. President. JOHN H. B. LATROBE. Vice-Presidents. Thos. E. Bond, Sen. Charles Howard, Luke Tiernan, Charles C. Harper, Peter Hoffman, P. R- Hoffman. Managers. Hugh D. Evans, John Fonerden, John H. Briscoe, John G. Proud, Wm. Crane, Wm. Woodward, William R. Stuart, George S. Gibson, Luther J. Cox, William Mason, Francis H. Smith, George M. Rogers. Franklin Anderson, Corresponding Secretary. Wm. F. Giles, Recording Secretary. Robert Mickle, Treasurer. Agents. Rev. Ira A. Easter, Home Agent. Rev. John H. Kennard, Traveling Agent. Managers of the Maryland State Fund, Under 'an act relating to the people of colour in this state, appointed by the Executive or the state of Maryland. Charles Howard, Peter Hoffman, William R. Stuart. MISSIONARIES AT CAPE PALMAS. From the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Rev. J. Leighton Wilson and lady. Rev. David White and lady. Mr. B. Van Rennsalaer James, printer and assistant missionary. (Coloured.) From the Protestant Episcopal Church. Rev. Thomas S. Savage, M. D. Rev. James Thompson and lady. (Coloured.) From the Methodist Episcopal Church. Rev. Mr. Burnes, (Coloured.) Rev. Isasc Welsh. do. From the Methodist Protestant Church. Rev. David James. (Coloured.) Note.—The Rev. Messrs. Payne and Mi- nor will join Dr. Savage and Mr. Thompson in the spring. Officers for the government of Maryland In Liberia. APPOINTMENTS BY THE SOCIETY. John B. Russwurm, Agent. Rev. Geo. R. McGill, Assistant Agent. APPOINTMENTS BY THE AGENT. James M. Thompson, Colonial Secretary. William Polk, Storekeeper and Surveyor. Jacob Gross, Overseer of the Public Farm. Anthony Wood, Justices of the Peace Thomas Jackson, Benjamin Johnson, Collector. Joshua Stuart, Auctioneer. ELECTIONS BY THE PEOPLE. Jacob Gross, Vice Agent. Nathan Leigh, Counsellors. Alexander Hance, William Hawkins, Sheriff. William Polk, Register. Thomas Jackson, Treasurer. Job Coates, Committee on George Hardy, New Emigrants. William Reynolds, John Harris, Henry Duncan, FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOARD OF MANAGERS OF THE MARYLAND STATE COLONIZATION SOCIETY. Since the date of the last annual report, the board of managers have to announce the sail- ing of two expeditions lor the colony of Mary- land in Liberia, making the sixth and seventh vessels that have been despatched with emi- grants and supplies from Baltimore, since the society determined upon the establishment of an independent colony fur the use of the emi- grants from Maryland. COMMUNICATION FROM KING FREEMAN. The schooner Financier left Baltimore with seventeen emigrants, on the 9th of July last; and the brig Niohe sailed with thirty-two emi- grants, on the 3lst of October following.— The Financier carried home Simleh Balla, the messenger or envoy, sent by the king of Cape Palinas, the principul chief of the native tribes, on whose territories the colony of the state society was founded, to the board of managers. This man, who was a shrewd intelligent indi- vidual, and the second in rank and importance under his chief, visited the United States at the request of King Freeman, that he might see for himself and report to the king, whe- ther all those things were true, which the society's agent had reported in Africa, con- cerning the power of the white man, and the presence here of a large portion of the African race in sluvory; and especially was Simleh Balla required, if he found the white man as he was detcribed to be, to obtain from the so- ciety a code of laws for the native government; the king distrusting those which the represen- tative m Africa offered, and desirous to obtain them from the same power directly that gave laws to the agent himself. After a residence of near two months in the state, the individual in question returned in the Financier, highly gratified with what he had seen and heard, deeply impressed with the power of the Ame- ricans, and furnished with a short and simple code of laws adapted to the wants, and within the comprehension of the unlettered and unci- vilized people for whose use they were com- piled. Intelligence has been received from Simleh Balla, since his return home, and the anticipations of the society with regard to the useful results of his visit seem in a fair way to be realized. The king had convened his head-men and proclaimed the laws sent out by the society ; and those of them even which jarred most with evcry-day customs were un- hesitatingly adopted. A letter from the king, said by the mission- ary, who wrote it at his dictation, to bo verba- tim in the lingua franca used on the coast, will be found m the appendix. It is an inte- resting document, and leads the mind forward to anticipate the day when the full blessings of colonization will be realized, not only to this country, but to Africa also, as her inhabi- tants are civilized and enlightened by its happy inllucnces. MISSIONARIES. The Niohe, besides the emigrants, took out the Rev. David White and lady, missionaries of the American Board of Commissioners for foreign missions, and Dr. Savage, missionary of the Protestant Episcopal church. An intel- ligent coloured man, educated as a printer, accompanied Mr. White, to work and manage the press, sent by the Ameriatm Board to the colonv. David James, one of the emigrants from Cecil county, was appointed, before the Niobe sailed, agent for the Methodist Protes- tant church, with a view to prepare for the establishment of a mission nt Capo Palmas, by that denomination of christians. The board of managers rejoice much at the position which Cape Palmas already occupies, as a missionary station. The advantages ol missionary labour will be felt there, not only by the heathen, who are more particularly its objects, but also by the colonists; and the re- sult will no doubt be the cultivation and main- tenance of a sentiment of order, and a deep sense of religion in the young community that will exhibit the happiest inllucnces in every stage of its future history. The superior salubrity of Cape Palmas over the other settlements on the coast has attract- ed to it the notice that has made it the impor- tant missionary station that it now is; and in tho health, not only of the emigrants, to whom the climate is naturally congenial, but also of the white persons who have resided there, the board have the best reasons lor rejoicing in the selection made by them tor tiie site of their colony. RESIGNATION OF DR. HALL—RETURN OF MR- HOLMES. In the last annual report, it was stated that Dr. Hull, the intelligent and estimable indivi- dual who had founded the settlement and acted for two years as its first governor, had applied for leave to return to the United States, which had been granted; and it was also stated that Oliver Holmes, Esq. had been appointed agent pro temjiorc, to proceed to Africa and take the place of Dr. Hall there, until a permanent ap- pointment could he made. Mr. Holmes sailed accordingly in the For- tune, in the fall of I83i. and fortunately reach- ed the colony before Dr. Hall had left there. In a short time he passed through the ocolimu- ting fever, and recovered his health ; and upon Dr. Hall's returning to the United States, found himself in charge of the colony. His administration of its affairs appears to have been firm and successful; and it gives the hoard pleasure to express their satisfaction with his zeal and energy. Led by devotion to the cause of colonization to visit Africa, he has entitled himself to be ranked among those who have perilled life to do service to that country—a long and honourable list of enthu- siastic labourers, in a cause that lias already claimed many martyrs. every respect qualified to discharge the duties consequent upon his appointment. Informa- tion has been received of his acceptance of the office, and the board entertain no doubt that his conduct in it will justify fully the propriety of bestowing it upon him. The board are aware they have no prece- dent in the appointment of a coloured agent in Africa to act for a colonization society in the United States, and that they have set an ex- ample in this respect; but, tinder all circum- stances and upon mature reflection, they are satisfied that their course has been the proper one. Ultimately, the government of the colo- nies on the coast of Africa must pass into the hands of the colonists, and the tutelage of the societies in this country nr.ist cease. This is admitted on all hands. In the United States the coloured people are habituated to seeing all power in the hands of the whites. Here they know no other rulers. Hitherto, in Afri- ca it has been the same. The power there was still in the hands of a white man; and the impression, so adverse to a proper exercise ol their full capacities for self-government, was still maintained, that the duties of agent and governor could only bo discharged by one of a different, colour from the colonists them- selves. The great difficulty to be overcome, in fitting the colonists for the task of self-go- vernment, was inspiring them, not a few am- bitious nnd scll:importiint individuals, but the whole mass, with the belief that they were competent to it; and this could never be done, while the system of white overseers, to which most of them were accustomed in the United Stales, was kept up in Africa. The smaller tho community loo, the easier the board thought it could be governed by a coloured man, the less difficult w.itihl be its affairs to manage so far as he was concerned, and the fewer would be the malcontents and opposers of his authority. As the small colony also grew to be a large one, the new emigrants would find an order of things established, against which opposition would be useless, and would fall at once into the habits and convictions of the already established colo- nists, Under all these circumstances, there- fore, and especially as the board found nn individual lilted in all respects for the station, they determined, while their settlement was yet young and its numbers were few, to ap- point a coloured agent, and accordingly they selected Mr. Uusswurin. Various causes, beyond the control of the Hoard of Managers and which it is here unne- cessary to enumerate, have hitherto prevented so full a canvass of tho State as could have been desired, and the effects of a want of very active effort have been apparent in the small number of emigrants that have sailed for Cape Palmas during the past year. By an arrange- ment with the Young Men's Society, however, this difficulty will be avoided in future. The agent of the State Society, the Rev. Ira A, Easter, who is also the agent of the Managers of the State fund, has hud assigned to him all the duties connected with the operations of the society; such as the shipment of emigrants, the care of the local correspondence, the super- intendence and keeping of the society's books, that require the presence of an agent in the office in Baltimore; while the agent associated with him, tho Uev. John II. Kennard, has assigned to him the duty of travelling from one part of the state to another, spreading information, procuring emigrants, and attend- ing to the preparations for tiieir departure, and tho formation of auxiliary societies wherever practicable. This combination of effort by the two agents here mentioned, will secure a constant and vigorous prosecution of the plans of the State Society. The prospects for a large expedition in the spring are very flat- tering; and there is every indication that the prejudices of the coloured people, and espe- cially those who are free, are gradually yielding to the conviction, that here they are at the best but wanderers and outcasts, without the prospect of moral or political aggrandizement, and that Africa is their true and appropriate home. APPOINTMENT OP MR. RUSSWURM. The temporary character of Dr. Holmes' appointment made it necessary for the board of managers to provide for a permanent suc- cessor, and after mature deliberation they se- lected John B. Uusswurui, of Monrovia, and forwarded to him the commission of agent of the State Society and governor of Maryland in Liberia. Mr. Kusswurm is a man of colour, who, after receiving a complete classical edu- cation in one of the northern colleges, settled in New York, where he distinguished himself as the editor of a paper, devoted to the aboli- tion cause. Colonization was then unknown to him: but becoming afterwards acquainted with its principles and object, he boldly disa- vowed the abolition doctrines that he had once advocated, denounced them in his paper, and illustrated the sincerity of his convictions by emigrating ten years ago to Liberia, where he has since remained, the senior member of the first commercial house at Monrovia, universal- ly respected for his talents, industry and inte- grity. He is a man of rare education for one of Ins colour, of exemplary deportment, and in ULTIMATE RESULTS OF COLONIZATION. The Board of Managers confidently antici- pate the time, and that not far removed, when the voluntary emigration of the coloured po- pulation of the United States to Africa, will equal that which takes place from Europe to this country. All that is necessary to bring this about, is to make Africa as attractive to the coloured people, as America is to the Euro- pean, which is to be done by the establishment there of happy, healthy, well-governed, ami prosperous communities, capable of self-sup- port and self-defence. This is now in rapid progress. Three years since Cape Palmas was a wilderness, with untutored savages for its inhabitants. It is now the boast of the Western coast. It has a population of three hundred emigrants, and four christian churches have established there their missionary settle- ments. With the colony at Bassa it is the same. The state of Mississippi is about founding another colony, ami doubtless with equal success. When colonies shall thus bo multiplied, and when tfie trade that must be the consequence is seen by the coloured peo- ple in this country, Africa will then be thought to offer the same inducements to them for emigration that the United States does to the European; and when this is the case it will not be many years before the free coloured population, and such of the slaves as become free, will deem it a privilege and not an exile, to emigrate to the colonics of Liberia. Were the same emigration to take place from the United States which now takes place from Europe, four times the present annual increase of the coloured population would be annually removed—and at that rate the objects of colo- nization would before long be accomplished.— That such may be the result, it especially behooves all the friends of colonization to bo active and untiring in their efforts; and to be satisfied that every thing which tends to make the colonies in Africa attractive, is directly in aid of the scheme which they support, even though the number of emigrants sent there in any one year should be less than they would have desired. Of tho justice of the reasoning here used, the Board of Managers are convin- ced by their experience; and they feel satis- lied that the time is now at hand when the liberal and enlightened policy of the state in regard to colonization is to he realized; and when the colony of Maryland in Liberia, plant- ed by her bounty, will become the home of thousands of voluntary emigrants from Mary- land in America. INDEPENDENT STATE ACTION. Another year's experience since the last annual report, has still further corroborated the Board of Managers in their conviction of the superiority of the plan of independent state action in regard to colonization over any other that has been suggested. They contend and uphold that the subject of slavery is one that concerns exclusively the states in which it exists, and they deprecate and would resist any interference with it by the general gov- ernment, by other states, or by societies, or individuals out of the state of Maryland.— Especially do they regret that any attempt should be made to invoke the action of con- gress on the subject, well assured that to do so would only be to make colonization the theme of political contention, to be used as the means of renewing, in the national legis- lature, those fiery and unnatural discussions whose tendency is evil, and whose only effect must be to weaken the bonds which hold the states together, by sowing enmity and distrust between the different members of the confede- racy. While the subject of slavery, tnd colonization as connected with it, are mado mutters of state concernment exclusively,— while all extraneous influences and interfe- rences are repudiated and resisted, and while the discussion above alluded to is prevented from taking place in the halls of congress, the subject of slavery can never become the one on which our existence as a united people will depend. Otherwise, it is impossible to Ibresee the consequences. The views here taken have been fully sus- tained by the policy of Maryland, nnd the conduct of the State Society throughout___ The appropriation law was based upon the principle of independent state action. Mary- land has now her separate colony on the coast of Africa; and the State Society exercise exclusively all the powers of government within it. In the late message of the execu- tive of this state, the same views are taken; and the Board of Managers trust and hope, that the day is not far distant when coloniza- tion will be in the hands of the states exclu- sively,and when all matters of general concern will bo settled by a convention of delegates from the state societies, the unity of whose action will he confined to Africa alone, while in this country each state will be left to pur- sue her own policy by the means that she considers most appropiiato to her condition. The Board ol Managers must not be consider- ed assaying any thing in disparagement of the American Colonization Society. To this body we are indebted for that proof without which colonization would still be an untried scheme. The American Colonization Society has pro- ved the practicability of establishing colonies on the coast of Africa, capable of self-support, self-defence, and self-increase, and has there- by won the praise and the everlasting thanks of the friends of Africa, of her sons and daugh- ters, and of humanity and philanthropy. But having done this, the appropriate functions of that society are at au end. The discordant views entertained among the friends of colo- nization themselves throughout our wide coun- try, forbid the idea of such an unity of senti- ment and action in any general society as is necessary to entire success; while this very discord, which in the nature of things it would seem impossible to soothe, indicates most appa- rently a system of independent state action as the only one by which colonization can be successfully prosecuted. ACQUISITION OF TERRITORY. Since the last annual report, large acquisi- tions of territory have been made around the settlement at Cape Palinas, and the State Society now owns both sides of the Cavally, abroad and noble river, from its mouth to the town of Donah, about thirty miles from the ocean. The agent, Dr. Hall, ascended the river, to the cataiacts at Faye and reached Selectmen. AGENCIES.